Application of sensor technology in Mechatronics

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Analysis of the application of sensor technology in mechatronics

in the mechatronics system, the sensor is the first part of the system, and its function is equivalent to the sensory organ of the system. It can quickly and accurately obtain information and withstand the severe environmental test, which is the guarantee for the mechatronics system to reach a high level. Without these sensors' accurate and reliable automatic detection of system state and information, the functions of information processing and control decision-making of the system cannot be talked about and realized

I. Research Status and development of sensors

sensors are devices or devices that can feel the specified measured and convert into usable output signals according to a certain law. They are mainly used to detect the status of mechatronics system itself, operating objects and working environment, and provide necessary relevant information for effectively controlling the operation of mechatronics system. With the expansion of human exploration field and space, there are more and more kinds of electronic information, the speed of information transmission is accelerating, and the ability of information processing is increasing. The corresponding information acquisition and sensing technology will also be developed day by day, and sensors will be everywhere

since the 1980s, a wave of sensor fever has gradually set off in the world. All advanced industrial countries attach great importance to sensing technology and sensor research, development and production. Sensing technology has become an important field of modern science and technology, and the production of sensors and their systems has become an important emerging industry

second, the application of sensors in mechatronics systems

sensors are one of the important technologies that affect the development of mechatronics systems (or products), and are widely used in various automation products:

1 Sensors for robots. The reason why industrial robots can operate accurately is that they can accurately perceive the state of themselves, operating objects and working environment through various sensors, including: the acquisition of their own state information is completed through internal sensors (position, displacement, speed, acceleration, etc.), and the perception of operating objects and external environment is realized through external sensors. This process is very important, Enough to provide feedback information for robot control

2. Sensor detection technology in machining process

(1) sensing technology of cutting process and machine tool operation process. The purpose of cutting process sensor detection is to optimize the productivity, manufacturing cost or (metal) material removal rate of the cutting process. The targets of cutting process sensing detection include cutting force and its changes in the cutting process, chattering in the cutting process, the contact between the tool and the workpiece, the state of the chip during cutting, and the identification of the cutting process. The most important sensing parameters include cutting force, vibration in the cutting process, sound emission in the cutting process, power of the motor in the cutting process, etc. For the operation of the machine tool, the main sensing and detection targets include the drive system, bearing and rotation system, temperature monitoring and control and safety, and its sensing parameters include the downtime of the machine tool, the surface roughness and machining accuracy of the machined parts, power, the state of the machine tool and the flow of cooling and lubricating fluid

(2) process sensing of workpiece. Compared with the process monitoring technology of cutting tools and machine tools, the process monitoring of workpiece is the earliest and most widely studied and applied. Most of them aim at the quality control of workpiece processing. Since the 1980s, the requirements of workpiece recognition and workpiece installation posture monitoring have also been put on the agenda. Roughly speaking, process identification is to identify whether the processing process performed is the process required for the processing of work (parts); Workpiece identification is to identify whether the workpiece or blank sent into the machine tool to be processed is the workpiece or blank required to be processed, and also to identify whether the pose of workpiece installation is the pose required by the process specification. In addition, workpiece identification and workpiece installation can be used to monitor the machining allowance and surface defects of the workpiece or workpiece to be machined. To complete these recognition and monitoring, many sensors will be adopted or developed, such as machine vision sensors based on TV or CCD, laser surface roughness sensing systems, etc

(3) tool (detection and sensing of grinding wheel. Cutting and grinding process is an important material removal process. The tool and grinding wheel are worn to a certain limit (judged according to the blunt standard) or damaged (the general term of damage, edge collapse, burn, plastic deformation or tool rolling), Make them lose their cut (when the grinding ability or the machining accuracy and the integrity of the machined surface cannot be guaranteed, it is called tool/grinding wheel failure. Industrial statistics have proved that tool failure is the primary factor causing the failure and shutdown of machine tools, and the downtime caused by it accounts for 1//3 of the total downtime of NC machine tools. In addition, it may also cause equipment or personal safety accidents, or even major accidents.

. In the automotive automatic control system Sensing technology. With the application of sensor technology and other new technologies, the modern automobile industry has entered a new era. The electromechanical integration of automobile requires that automatic control system be used to replace pure mechanical control components, which is not only reflected in the engine. In order to comprehensively improve automobile performance, increase humanized service function, reduce fuel consumption, reduce exhaust pollution, and improve driving safety, reliability, convenient operation and comfort, advanced detection and control technology has been extended to the whole body of automobile. In all its key control systems, crankshaft position sensors, suction and cooling water temperature sensors, pressure sensors, gas sensors and other sensors are indispensable

3. Some problems and development direction of sensor technology in China

sensor technology is the key link to realize automatic control and automatic adjustment, and it is also one of the indispensable key technologies of mechatronics system. Its level affects and determines the function of the system to a great extent; The higher the level, the higher the degree of automation of the system. In a complete mechatronics system, if we can't use the sensor detection technology to detect the parameters of the controlled object in time and accurately and convert them into signals that are easy to transmit and process, the information we need for system control can't be obtained, and then the whole system can't work normally and effectively

the research of sensors in China is mainly concentrated in professional research institutes and universities, which began in the 1980s. Compared with foreign advanced technology, we still have a large gap, mainly manifested in:

(1) advanced calculation, simulation and design methods

(2) advanced micromachining technology and equipment

(3) advanced packaging technology and equipment

(4) reliability technology research. Therefore, we must strengthen technical research and introduce advanced equipment to improve the overall level. The development direction of sensor technology in the future can be in several aspects:

1 Accelerate the development of new sensitive materials: through the mutual penetration and comprehensive utilization of various new technologies in microelectronics, optoelectronics, biochemistry, information processing and other disciplines, it is expected to develop a number of advanced sensors based on new sensitive materials

2. Develop to high accuracy: develop new sensors with high sensitivity, high accuracy, fast response and good interchangeability to ensure the reliability of production automation

3. Developing towards miniaturization: it is necessary to actively carry out industrial activities through the development of new materials and processing technology. Now, the miniaturization of sensors will be a research hotspot in recent ten years

4. Development towards micro power consumption and passivity: sensors are generally the conversion from non electric quantity to electric quantity, and they cannot work without power supply. The development of micro power consumption sensors and passive sensors is an inevitable development direction

5. Development towards intelligent Digitalization: with the development of modernization, the function of the sensor has broken through the traditional function, and its output is no longer a single analog signal (such as MV), but a digital signal that has been processed by microcomputer and transformed through innovation, so that enterprises can always take the lead in the market competition at home and abroad, and some even have control functions, that is, intelligent sensors


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